Who Cares: Stakeholder participation and the Use of Performance Information in Strategic Planning

Ssu-Hsien Chen


Performance measurement translates organizational goals into objectives and actions. In empirical performance information scores and ranks functional departments and subordinates based on their implementation capacity— such capacity indexes could be linked to strategic planning and its adjustment. Previous research in strategic plans and performance measurement focused on the nature of performance information. This study further detects how it relates to different stakeholders’ interests and capacity. Does various stakeholders’ participation in strategic plans enhance the use of performance information in the planning process? Do external stakeholders generate different effect on the use of performance information if compared to internal stakeholders? The author attempts to answer these questions by examining whether external stakeholders (including interest groups and citizen groups) and internal stakeholders (including Chief Administrative Officers, local government staffs and elected officials’) participation in strategic plans could positively influence the application of performance information in strategic planning. Data are mainly from International City/County Management Association (ICMA) “State of the Profession” survey in 2006. The methods of logistic regression and predicted probability are employed. The statistical results show that the participation of CAOs, local government staffs and elected officials are positively and significantly influence the application of performance information to strategic planning. Based on technical rationality, managerial effectiveness and political accountability, internal stakeholders can generate a more significant effect on the use of performance information than external stakeholders.

성과 측정은 조직 목표를 의제와 행동으로 전환한다. 실증적 성과 정보는 각 부서와 부하 직원들을 채점하고 순위 매긴다. 그러한 능력 지표는 전략 기획과 그 적응에 연결될 수 있다. 전략적 기획과 성과 측정에 관한 선행 연구는 성과 정보의 본질에 초점을 맞추고 있다. 본 연구는 더 나아가 그것이 다양한 이해관계와 능력에 어떻게 관련되는지를 탐구한다. 전략적 기획에서의 다양한 이해 관계자 참여가 기획 단계에서의 성과 정보 이용을 축진하는가? 내적 이해관계자에 비하여 외적 이해관계자가 성과정보 이용에 다양한 영향을 미치는가? 저자는 외적 이해관계자 (이해 단체와 시민 단체를 포함)과 내적 이해관계자 (행정 부서장, 지방 정부 공무원, 지방 의회 의원)의 전략적 기획에의 참여가 전략적 기획에서의 성과 정보 이용에 긍정적 영향을 미치는지를 연구함으로써 이러한 질문에 답하고자 하였다. 데이터는 주로 국제 도시/카운티 연합(ICMA)의 2006 직업의 상태 설문 조사에 의거하였다. 로짓 회귀분석과 예측 확률 방법론을 이용하였다. 통계 결과에 따르면 행정 부서장, 지방 정부 공무원, 지방 의회 의원의 참여는 전략적 기획에서의 성과 정보 적용에 긍정적이고 통계적으로 유의미한 영향을 미쳤다. 기술적 합리성, 관리적 효율성, 그리고 정치적 책무성에 의거하여 내적 이해관계자들은 외적 이해관계자들에 비하여 성과 정보 이용에 보다 유의미한 영향을 미쳤다. 


Performance Measurement; Stakeholder Participation; the Application of Performance Information; Strategic Planning

Full Text:



Adams, Gordon. 1981. The Iron Triangle: The Politics of Defense Contracting, Council on Economic Priorities, New York: St. Martin's Press.

Alston, L. J. 1996. “Empirical Work in Institutional Economics.” In L. J. Alston, T. Eggertsson, & D. C. North eds., Empirical Studies in Institutional Change. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 25-30.

Aristigueta, Maria Pilar. 1997. Managing for Results in the States. Doctoral dissertation, Department of Public Administration, University of Southern California, California.

Backoff, Robert, Barton Wechsler and R.E.J. Crew. 1993. “The Challenge of Strategic Management in Local Government.” Public Administration Quarterly, 17(2): 127-45.

Behn, Robert D. 2003. “Why Measure Performance? Different Purposes Require Different Measures.” Public Administration Review, 63 (5): 586-606.

Berman, Evan. 1997. “Dealing with Cynical Citizens.” Public Administration Review, 57(2): 105-12.

Berman, Evan and Xiaohu Wang. 2000. “Hypotheses about Performance Measurement in Counties: Findings from a Survey.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 11(3): 403-28.

Bok, Derek. 1997. “Measuring the Performance of Government.” In Joseph S. Nye, Jr., Philip D. Zelikow and David C. King eds., Why People Don’t Trust Government. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 55-75.

Broadnax, W. D. and K. J. Conway. 2000. “The Social Security Administration and Performance Management.” In D. W. Forsythe ed., Quicker, Better, Cheaper: Managing Performance in American Government. Albany: Rockefeller Institute Press, 143-76.

Broom, Cheryle, Marilyn Jackson and Jody Harris, et al. 1998. Performance Measurement: Concepts and Techniques (3rd Ed.). Washington, DC: Center for Accountability and Performance, the American Society for Public Administration.

Bryson, John M. 1995. Strategic Planning for Public and Nonprofit Organization: A Guide to Strengthening and Sustaining Organizational Achievement (Rev. Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Bush, George W. 2005. State of the union address. from http://www.whitehouse.gov/news/releases/2005/02/2005200-11.html. Retrieved February 2, 2009.

Chatterjee, Samprit and Ali Hadi. 2006. Regression Analysis by Example. New Jersey: John Wiley &Sons, Inc..

Conlan, T. 1998. From New Federalism to Devolution: Twenty Five Years of Intergovernmental Reform. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.

Cope, Glen H. 1997. “Bureaucratic Reform and Issues of Political Responsiveness.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 7: 461-71.

Coutry, P. and G. Marschke. 2004. “An Empirical Investigation of Gaming Responses to Performance Incentives.” Journal of Labor Economics, 22(1): 23-56.

Dull, Matthew. 2006. “Why PART? The Institutional Politics of Presidential Budget Reform.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16: 187-215.

Fernandez, Sergio and Hal G. Rainey. 2006. “Managing Successful Organizational Change in the Public Sector.” Public Administration Review, 66(2): 168-76.

Fountain, James, Wilson Campbell, Terry Patton, Paul Epstein and Mandi Cohn. 2003. Reporting Performance Information: Suggested Criteria for Effective Communication. Norwalk, CT: Government Accounting Standards Board.

Gargan, John J. 1989. “Strategic Management in City Government: Continuing the Interplay of Rationality and Politics.” In Jack Rabin, Gerald J. Miller and W. Bartley Hildreth eds., Handbook of Strategic Management. New York: Marcel Dekker, 493-523.

Gelman, Andrew and Iain Pardoe. 2007. “Average Predictive Comparisons for Models with Nonlinearity, Interactions, and Variance Components.” Sociological Methodology, 37(1): 23-51.

Glaser, Mark and Robert Denhardt. 2000. “Local Government Performance through the Eyes of Citizens.” Journal of Public Budgeting, Accounting and Financial Management, 12(1): 49-73.

Governmental Accounting Standards Board (GASB). 1994. Concepts Statement No.2 on Concepts Related to Service Efforts and Accomplishments Reporting. Norwalk, CT.: GASB.

Giddens, A. 1984. The Constitution of Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

Gujarati, Damodar. 1992. Essentials of Econometrics. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Hanmer, Michael J. and Kerem Ozan Kalkan. 2013. “Behind the Curve: Clarifying the Best Approach to Calculating Predicted Probabilities and Marginal Effects from Limited Dependent Variable Models.” American Journal of Political Science, 57(1): 263-77.

Hatry, Harry. 1980. “Performance Measurement Principles and Techniques—An Overview for Local Government.” Public Productivity Review, 4(2): 312-39.

Hatry, Harry. 2000. Performance Measurement: Getting results. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.

Hayden, F. Gregory. 2002. "Policymaking Network of the Iron-Triangle Subgovernment for Licensing Hazardous Waste Facilities". Journal of Economic Issues, 36 (2): 477-484.

Ho, Alfred. 2003. “Perceptions of Performance Measurement and the Practice of Performance Reporting by Small Cities.” State and Local Government Review, 35(2): 161-73.

Ho, Alfred T. 2006. “Accounting for the Value of Performance Measurement from the Perspective of Midwestern Mayors.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16(2): 217-38.

Ho, Alfred T. and Paul Coates. 2004. “Citizen-initiated Performance Assessment: The Initial Iowa Experience.” Public Performance and Management Review, 27 (3): 29-50.

Holzer, Marc, & Kathy Callahan. 1998. Government at Work. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications.

International City Management Association (ICMA). 1979. Using Productivity Measurement: A Manager’s Guide to More Effective Services. Washington, DC: International City Management Association.

Ingraham, Patrcia W. 1998. “Transforming Management, Managing Transformation.” In Patricia W, Ingraham, James R. Thompson and Ronald P. Sanders eds., Transforming Government, Lessons from the Reinvention Laboratories. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass, 241-56.

Jennings, E. and M. P. Haist. 2004. “Putting Performance Measurement in Context.” In P. W. Ingraham and L. E. Lynn, Jr. eds., The Art of Governance: Analyzing Management and Administration. Washington, DC: Georgetown University Press, 152-94.

Kelly, Janet M. and David Swindell. 2002. “A Multiple-indicator Approach to Municipal Service Evaluation: Correlating Performance Measurement and Citizen Satisfaction across Jurisdictions.” Public Administration Review, 62(5): 610-21.

Kettl, Donald. 1994. Reinventing Government? Appraising the National Performance Review. Washington, DC: Brookings.

Knight, J. 1992. Institutions and Social Conflict. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Koteen, Jack. 1989. Strategic Management in Public and Nonprofit Organizations: Thinking and Acting Strategically on Public Concerns. New York: Praeger.

Kutner, Michael H., Christopher L. Nachtsheim, John Neter and William Li. 2005. Applied Linear Statistical Models. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, Inc.

Libecap, Gary. 1989. Contracting for Property Rights. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Mechling, Jerry and Thomas M. Fletcher. 1996. Information Technology and Government: The Need for New Leadership. Cambridge, MA: John F. Kennedy School of Government, Harvard University.

Moynihan, Donald P. 2005. “Goal-based Learning and the Future of Performance Management.” Public Administration Review, 65(2): 203-16.

Moynihan, Donald P. 2006. “Managing for Results in State Government: Evaluating a Decade of Reform.” Public Administration Review. 66(1): 78-90.

Moynihan, Donald P. 2008. The Dynamics of Performance management. Washington DC.: Georgetown University Press.

North, Douglass C. 1990. Institutions, Institutional Change and Economic Performance. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Nutt, Paul C. and Robert W. Backoff. 1992. Strategic Management of Public and Third Sector Organizations: A Handbook for Leaders. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Osborne, David and Ted, Gaebler. 1992. Reinventing Government: How the Entrepreneurial Spirit Is Transforming the Public Sector. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.

Ostrom, E. 1990. Governing the commons: The Evolution of Institutions for Collective Action. New York: Cambridge University Press.

Poister, Theodore H. and Streib, Gregory. 1999. “Performance Measurement in Municipal Government: Assessing the State of the Practice.” Public Administration Review, 59(4): 325-35.

Poister, Theodore H. and Streib, Gregory. 2005. “Elements of Strategic Planning and Management in Municipal Government: Status after Two Decades.” Public Administration Review, 65(1): 45-56.

Rainey, Hal G. 2003. Understanding and Managing Public Organizations (3rd Ed.). San Francisco: Jossey-Bass.

Rogers, Everett M. 1995. Diffusion of Innovation (4th Ed.). New York: Free Press.

Ryzin, Gregg G. Van. 2005. “Testing the Expectancy Disconfirmation Model of Citizen Satisfaction with Local Government.” Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 16: 599-611.

Sabatier, Paul A and Christopher M. Weible. 2007. “The Advocacy Coalition Framework: Innovations and Clarifications.” In Paul A. Sabatier ed., Theories of the Policy Process. Colorado, Boulder: Westview Press, 189-222.

Shaw, Greg and Stephanie Reinhart. 2001. “The Polls-trends: Devolution and Confidence in Government.” Public Opinion Quarterly, 65(3): 367-88.

Streib, Gregory. 1992. “Applying Strategic Decision Making in Local Government.” Public Productivity and Management Review, 15(3): 341-55.

Swanstrom, Todd. 1987. “The Limits of Strategic Planning for Cities.” Journal of Urban Affairs, 9(2):139-57.

Tigue, Patricia. 1994. “Use of Performance Measures by GFOA Members.” Government Finance Review, (December): 42-4.

Van Thiel, S. and F. L. Leeuw. 2002. “The Performance Paradox in the Public Sector.” Public Productivity and Management Review, 25(3): 267-81.

Weil, Frederick. 1989. “The Sources and Structure of Legitimation in Western Democracies.” American Sociological Review, 54(5): 682-706.

Wholey, Joseph S. 1999. “Performance-based Management: Responding to the Challenges.” Public Productivity and Management Review, 22(3): 288-307.

Wholey, Joseph S. and Harry P. Hatry. 1992. “The Case for Performance Monitoring.” Public Administration Review, 52(6): 604-10.

Wholey, Joseph S. and Kathryn E. Newcomer. 1997. “Clarifying Goals, Reporting Results.” In Kathryn E, Newcomer ed., Using Performance Measurement to Improve Public and Nonprofit Programs. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 91-8.

Williamson, Olivier. 1985. The Economic Institutions of Capitalism. New York: Free Press.

Yang, Kaifeng. 2007. “Making Performance Measurement Relevant.” In Patria de Lancer Julnes, Fran Berry, Maria Aristigueta and Kaifeng Yang eds., International Handbook of Practice-Based Performance Management. Thousand Oaks: CA: Sage Publications, 173-88.

Yang, Kaifeng and Marc Holzer. 2006. “The Performance-Trust Link: Implications for Performance Measurement.” Public Administration Review, 66(1): 114-26.

Yang, Kaifeng and Jun Yi Hsieh. 2007. “Managerial Effectiveness of Government Performance Measurement: Testing a Middle-Range Model.” Public Administration Review, (September/October): 861-79.

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22140/cpar.v8i2.125


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Chinese Public Administration Review (ISSN 1539-6754, Online ISSN 2573-1483)  is published by the Institute for Public Service at Suffolk University - Boston.