Campaign-Style Paired Assistance: The Chinese Experience in Fighting the COVID-19 Pandemic

Weixu Wu, Xinyu Tan, Qinzhi Jiang

Abstract


To cope with the COVID-19 pandemic, the Chinese government initiated a medical resource allocation and assistance mechanism that was characterized as a large-scale and regional mutual approach. Specifically, thirty provinces delivered medical resources (e.g., medical staff, medical supplies, and living materials) to “1+16” cities severely affected by the epidemic within a small amount of time, which solved the dilemma of medical collapse and governance “downtime” in epidemic areas, thereby changing the prevalence curve of the pandemic in China. “Campaign-style” targeted assistance can be interpreted based on the Chinese dual party-government model as well as the governance model of vertical accountability and horizontal competition, drawing from previous experience of normalized “designated assistance.” Consequently, paired assistance contributes to intergovernmental situations of decreasing divisibility and increasing cooperation. This study has the potential to bring insights to other countries around the world that are fighting the COVID-19 pandemic.


Keywords


COVID-19 Pandemic; Paired Assistance; Central-Local Relations of China; Hubei Province

Full Text:

PDF

References


Bjorn, L. (2009). Global Crises, Global Solutions: Costs and Benefits. Cambridge University Press.

Chen, S., Yang, J., Yang, W., Wang, C., & Bärnighausen, T. (2020). COVID-19 control in China during mass population movements at New Year. The Lancet, 395(10226), 764-766.

Chung, J. H. (2016). China’s local governance in perspective: Instruments of central government control. The China Journal, 75(1), 38-60.

Comfort, L. K., Waugh, W. L., & Cigler, B. A. (2012). Emergency management research and practice in public administration: Emergence, evolution, expansion, and future directions. Public Administration Review, 72(4), 539-547.

Edin, M. (2003). Remaking the communist party-state: The cadre responsibility system at the local level in China. China: An International Journal, 1(1), 1-15.

General Office of the State Council of PRC (GOSCPRC). (2008). Paired Assistance plan for recovery and reconstruction after the Wenchuan earthquake. http://www.gov.cn/jrzg/2008-06/25/content_1026583.htm

Huang, C., Wang, Y., Li, X., Ren, L., Zhao, J., Hu, Y., ... & Cao, B. (2020). Clinical features of patients infected with 2019 novel coronavirus in Wuhan, China. The Lancet, 395(10223), 497-506.

Knauer, N. J. (2020). The COVID-19 Pandemic and Federalism: Who Decides?. New York University Journal of Legislation and Public Policy.

Kung, J., Cai, Y., & Sun, X. (2009). Rural cadres and governance in China: incentive, institution and accountability. The China Journal, 62, 61-77.

Li, H., & Zhou, L. A. (2005). Political turnover and economic performance: the incentive role of personnel control in China. Journal of Public Economics, 89(9-10), 1743-1762.

Li, J. (2020 Mar 11). 10% of the national critical forces support Wuhan [in Chinese]. China News Weekly. http://www.inewsweek.cn/society/2020-03-11/8767.shtml

Li, R. (2015). Define “Partner Aid Practice with Chinese Characteristics”: A Political Giving Explanation [in Chinese]. Comparative Economic & Social System, 4, 194-204.

Liu, Y., & Wang Y. (2019). Paired Assistance: Precision Assistance Improves Effectiveness. China Health, 3, 64-66. [in Chinese]

Ministry of Industry and Information Technology of PRC (MIITPRC). (2020). The Press Conference on Production Guarantee of Medical Materials. http://www.miit.gov.cn/n1146290/n1146402/c7856999/content.html

Ministry of Transport of the PRC (MOTPRC). (2020) Daily data of epidemic prevention and control in transportation January 27-June 4. http://www.mot.gov.cn/jiaotongyaowen/

National Health Commission of the PRC (NHCPRC). (2020). The record of press conference, February 4-April 29, http://www.nhc.gov.cn/

Qian, T. (2020 Feb 1). Why is it so difficult for epidemic prevention materials when domestic coordination is insufficient and overseas is obstructed? [in Chinese]. Caixin. http://www.caixin.com/2020-02-01/101510420.html

Qian, Y., & Roland, G. (1998). Federalism and the soft budget constraint. American Economic Review, 88(5), 1143-1162.

Rozell, M. J., & Wilcox, C. (2020). Federalism in a time of plague: how federal systems cope with pandemic. The American Review of Public Administration, 50(6-7), 519-525.

Schnall, A., Nakata, N., Talbert, T., Bayleyegn, T., Martinez, D., & Wolkin, A. (2017). Community Assessment for Public Health Emergency Response (CASPER): an innovative emergency management tool in the United States. American Journal of Public Health, 107(S2), S186-S192.

Stazyk, E. C., & Goerdel, H. T. (2011). The benefits of bureaucracy: Public managers’ perceptions of political support, goal ambiguity, and organizational effectiveness. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 21(4), 645-672.

Wu, J., Ma, L., & Yang, Y. (2013). Innovation in the Chinese public sector: Typology and distribution. Public Administration, 91(2), 347-365.

Yu, J. & Gao, X. (2012). Behavioral Logic and Institutional Basis of Local Developmental States [in Chinese], Social Sciences in China, 32(5), 95-112.

Zhang, X. & Xu, L. (2020 Feb 26). China’s “Paired Assistance” Approach to Coronavirus: Lessons from the Wenchuan Earthquake Response. Center For Global Development Notes. https://www.cgdev.org/publication/chinas-Paired-assistance-approach-coronavirus-lessons-wenchuan-earthquake-response

Zhao, S., Lin, Q., Ran, J., Musa, S. S., Yang, G., Wang, W., ... & Wang, M. H. (2020). Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China, from 2019 to 2020: A data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. International Journal of Infectious Diseases, 92, 214-217.

Zhong, K. (2013). Paired Assistance in China: Origins, Formation and Development [in Chinese]. The Journal of Gansu Administration Institute, 4, 14-24.

Zhong, K. (2018). Explaining the Mechanism of the Paired Assistance to Disaster-Affected Areas Program Work in China: A Multiple Moderated-Competitions Framework [in Chinese]. Journal of Gansu Administration Institute, 1, 4-14.

Zhou, L. A. (2007). Research on the Tournament Promotion Model of Local Officials in China[in Chinese]. Economic Research Journal, 7, 36-50.

Zhu, X., & Zhao, H. (2018). Experimentalist governance with interactive central–local relations: Making new pension policies in China. Policy Studies Journal.

Li

A2N. (2020). Anti-2019-nCoV. https://project-gutenberg.github.io/nCovMemory-Web/post/922921c6056e015089bcbb48f3e35a5d/

Acemoglu, D. (2020, March 30). The Coronavirus Exposed America’s Authoritarian Turn. Foreign Affairs. https://www.foreignaffairs.com/articles/2020-03-23/coronavirus-exposed-americas-authoritarian-turn

Alon-Barkat, S. (2020). Can Government Public Communications Elicit Undue Trust? Exploring the Interaction between Symbols and Substantive Information in Communications. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory, 30(1), 77–95.

CAWM. (2020, April 1). FAQs about the COVID-19. Chinese Association of West Michigan. http://www.cawmgr.org/guan-yu-covid-19de-faq/

Chen, J., & Liu, W. (2020). Information Channel Matters for Coordination During COVID-19 Pandemic: Evidence from Foreigners in China. Chinese Public Administration Review, 11(2), 105–109.

Cheng, Y. (Daniel), Yu, J., Shen, Y., & Huang, B. (2020). Coproducing Responses to COVID-19 with Community-Based Organizations: Lessons from Zhejiang Province, China. Public Administration Review, 80(5), 866–873.

Dong, E., Du, H., & Gardner, L. (2020). An interactive web-based dashboard to track COVID-19 in real time. The Lancet Infectious Diseases, 20(5), 533-534.

First Draft. (2020). About. First Draft. https://firstdraftnews.org:443/about/

Frank, R. G., & Salkever, D. S. (1994). Nonprofit Organizations in the Health Sector. Journal of Economic Perspectives, 8(4), 129–144.

Fukuyama, F. (2020). The Thing That Determines a Country’s Resistance to the Coronavirus. The Atlantic. https://www.theatlantic.com/ideas/archive/2020/03/thing-determines-how-well-countries-respond-coronavirus/609025/

Gabriel, T., & Martin, J. (2020, April 18). Gretchen Whitmer Isn’t Backing Down. The New York Times. https://www.nytimes.com/2020/04/18/us/politics/gretchen-whitmer-michigan-protests.html

GMCC. (2020). Global MediXchange for Combating COVID-19 (GMCC). https://gmcc.alibabadoctor.com

Hansmann, H. B. (1980). The Role of Nonprofit Enterprise. The Yale Law Journal, 89(5), 835–902.

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. (n.d.). COVID-19 Map. Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. Retrieved May 23, 2020, from https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/map.html

Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. (2020). Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. https://coronavirus.jhu.edu/

Kahneman, D. (2013). Thinking, Fast and Slow. Farrar, Straus and Giroux.

Li, H. (2017). Information and Donations: A Study of Nonprofit Online Communication [Dissertation, Rutgers University]. https://doi.org/10.7282/T35T3PDQ

Li, H. (2020a). Communication for Coproduction: A Systematic Review and Research Agenda. Journal of Chinese Governance, 5(1), 110–135.

Li, H. (2020b). Communication for Coproduction: Increasing Information Credibility to Fight the Coronavirus. American Review of Public Administration, 50(6/7), 692–697.

Mantzarlis, A. (2020, April 2). COVID-19: $6.5 million to help fight coronavirus misinformation. Google. https://blog.google/outreach-initiatives/google-news-initiative/covid-19-65-million-help-fight-coronavirus-misinformation/

Mitchell, A., Jurkowitz, M., Oliphant, J. B., & Shearer, E. (2020). Three Months In, Many Americans See Exaggeration, Conspiracy Theories and Partisanship in COVID-19 News. Pew Research Center’s Journalism Project. https://www.journalism.org/2020/06/29/three-months-in-many-americans-see-exaggeration-conspiracy-theories-and-partisanship-in-covid-19-news/

National Council of Nonprofits. (2020, March 10). Nonprofits and Coronavirus, COVID-19. National Council of Nonprofits. https://www.councilofnonprofits.org/nonprofits-and-coronavirus-covid-19

NVOAD. (n.d.-a). Disaster Agency Response Technology (DART). NVOAD. Retrieved June 25, 2020, from https://www.nvoad.org/disaster-agency-response-technology-dart/

NVOAD. (n.d.-b). NVOAD.org. NVOAD. Retrieved June 25, 2020, from https://www.nvoad.org/

Palumbo, R. (2016). Contextualizing co-production of health care: A systematic literature review. International Journal of Public Sector Management, 29(1), 72–90.

Tsai, L. L., Morse, B. S., & Blair, R. A. (2020). Building credibility and cooperation in low-trust settings: persuasion and source accountability in Liberia during the 2014–2015 Ebola crisis. Comparative Political Studies, 53(10-11), 1582-1618.

Tversky, A., & Kahneman, D. (1974). Judgment under Uncertainty: Heuristics and Biases. Science, 185, 1124–1131.

WHO. (2020). Advice for public. https://www.who.int/emergencies/diseases/novel-coronavirus-2019/advice-for-public

Woo, E. (2020). COVID-19 and Chinese Civil Society’s Response. Stanford Social Innovation Review. https://ssir.org/articles/entry/covid_19_and_chinese_civil_societys_response




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.22140/cpar.v0i0.261

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Chinese Public Administration Review (ISSN 1539-6754, Online ISSN 2573-1483)  is published by the School of Government, Sun Yat-sen University.